State of Matter
State of Matter For Kids - Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma
What is the Matter?
The matter is anything around us that takes up SPACE and has MASS. In other words, matter describes everything that we can see, touch, smell, or feel.
Examples are air, water, rocks, trees, home, books, and even people, etc.
Did you know! The word atom is derived from a Greek word that means “CANNOT BE DIVIDED”.
✍ What is a matter made of?
“Matter is made of molecules and molecules are made up of two or more ATOMS.” Let’s understand with an example.
“We are students.” – 1 sentence, same as Matter,
We / are / students – 3 words, same as Molecules,
W, e, a, r, e, s, t, u, d, e, n, t, s – 13 letters, same as Atoms.
So, we can say that this sentence is made up of words and words are made up of letters.
In the same way matter is made up of molecules and molecule consists of atoms. Just as the letter is the smallest unit of sentence, similarly, the atom is also the smallest unit of substance.
Let’s take another example. As we know that water is a matter.
H2O – water molecule is made up of 2 atoms of H (hydrogen) + 1 atom of O (oxygen)
So atoms are the building blocks of everything. Atoms can join together to form molecules, which in turn form most of the objects around us. Even when atoms put together to form molecules, which form cells, which form tissues, which form our organs and people and our planets and galaxies and so on.
✍ What are atoms made up of?
Atoms are made of extremely tiny particles called electrons, protons and neutrons.
Protons – carry a positive electrical charge (+ve),
Electrons – carry a negative electrical charge (-ve)
Neutrons carry no electrical charge at all.
Nucleus is the center of an atom consists proton and neutrons.
For further information on the atom, Go Here.
✍ What is mass?
Mass is the amount of matter in an object. It is a combination of the total number of atoms, the density of the atoms, and the type of atoms in an object.
Mass is measured in kilograms (kg), or grams (g).
You should also know that Mass is NOT the same as weight. The difference is that mass is a measure of the matter in an object while weight is a measure of gravity’s pull on an object. (Mass in detail)
✍ What is volume?
✍ What are the different states of matter?
Mainly there are three states of matter.
Apart from these, there are two more states are:
– Plasmas, and
– Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC).
A solid is a matter that has a shape that does not change. For example, a pencil is solid. It has its own size and shape. It cannot be changed unless you break or cut it. So, A solid has a definite shape.
Why solid has a definite shape?
As we know the matter is made of molecules and molecules are made of atoms.
The molecules in a solid are very tightly packed with each other. They hold each other very tightly. It means there is a strong force of attraction between them.
A solid has these three main properties:
1. A solid has a definite shape.
2. A solid has a definite mass.
3. A solid has a definite volume.
Liquids do not have their own shape but take the shape of the container they are in. For example, water, juice, milk are liquid.
If the container is round then the shape of liquid will become round and if we put that liquid in a square-shaped container then it will become square-shaped.
Why liquid has no definite shape?
The molecules in a liquid are much further apart than in solids and can move around easily. They hold each other loosely. It means the force of attraction in liquids is weaker than it is in solids. Therefore liquids have a definite volume but they do not have a definite shape.
Main properties of liquid:
1. A liquid does not have a definite shape.
2. A liquid has a definite mass.
3. A liquid has a definite volume.
Gas –Gases are free-flowing. Like steam, the air is the gas. The molecules in a gas are very far from each other. They hold each other loosely. The force of attraction in gas is very weak. That is why gases have neither a definite shape nor volume. Gases fill all the space or volume of a container irrespective of the container size.
Main properties of gas:1. A gas does not have a definite shape. 2. A gas does not have a definite mass. 3. A gas does not have a definite volume.
Plasma is the fourth state of matter on Earth. Plasma is created by adding more and more heat to a gas so that some of its electrons leave its atoms.
As we have read that atoms are made of electrons, protons, and neutrons. In Plasma state of matter, electrons escaped from their respective atoms.
Plasma is neutral because it has an equal amount of electrons (-) and protons (+). That is why plasma can conduct electricity.
Here are some examples of forms of plasma: lightning, fluorescent lights, plasma screen tv, neon signs are glass tubes filled with gas, stars (including the Sun), etc.
Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC)
Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) is the fifth state of matter, In 1924-25, scientist Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose predicted the “Bose-Einstein condensate” (BEC).
This state of matter is completely opposite to the plasma state of matter. Plasmas are extremely hot and super excited atom, and on the contrary, atoms of Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) are un-excited and extremely cold.